Glossary

Acute Psychosis: A group of disorders in which ego functioning is either impaired or inhibited. The ability to process reality-based information is diminished and disordered. 

Analgesia: An analgesic or painkiller, which is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia – relief from pain.

Analgesics: Analgesics are medicines that relieve pain.

Anesthesiologist: ( anesthesiologist USA, anaesthetists UK and elsewhere ) A medical specialist who administers an 
anesthetic to a patient before he is treated.

Anaesthetic: (or anesthetic USA) An agent or drug that limits or eliminates sensation of pain or awareness of surroundings.

Anesthesiology: The branch of medicine concerned with the relief of pain and the administration of medication to relieve pain during surgery or other invasive procedures.  

Anesthesia Awareness: A disputed and rare condition that occurs during general anesthesia for surgery when the dose of general anesthetic or analgesic is insufficient to prevent recall of actual events. It is not the same as dreaming and patients may or may not be either comfortable or distressed.

‘Dysanaesthesia’, which implies a degree of environmental awareness but is not associated with cognitive appraisal of distressing aspects of surgery (e.g. pain, inability to move), and may or may not be explicitly remembered. From: Pandit JJ. Isolated forearm – or isolated brain? Interpreting responses during anaesthesia – or ‘dysanaesthesia’. Anaesthesia 2013; 68: 995–1000.

Anticholinergic: Blocking the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves; also, an agent that so acts.

Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to control seizures, such as in epilepsy.

Antihistamines: Antihistamines are drugs that block the action of histamine (a compound released in allergic inflammatory reactions) at the H1 receptor sites, responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as sneezing and itching.

Antihypertensive: Counteracting high blood pressure, or an agent that does this.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD): The most common form of dementia, a neurologic disease characterized by loss of mental ability severe enough to interfere with normal activities of daily living, lasting at least six months, and not present from birth.

Bipolar disorder: Also known as bipolar affective disorder manic, manic-depressive disorder, or manic depression, is a mental illness classified by psychiatrists as a mood disorder. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience episodes of a frenzied mood known as mania alternating with episodes of depression.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Pathological preoccupation with an imagined or slight physical defect of one’s body to the point of causing significant stress or behavioral impairment in several areas. Also known as body dysmorphic, dysmorphic syndrome

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA): An abnormal condition of the brain characterized by occlusion by an embolus, thrombus, or cerebrovascular hemorrhage or vasospasm resulting in ischemia of the brain tissues normally perfused by the damaged vessels. 

Cerebrovascular disease (CVD): It is a group of brain dysfunctions related to disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain.

Cerebral Dysfunction: Preferred terminology to brain damage.  Applies to damage to a previously undamaged brain and to disorders where the damage was present from birth.

Chemotherapeutic: Referring to a chemotherapeutic agent, effect or regimen

Cortico-steroid (Dexamethasone): A class of drugs based on hormones formed in the adrenal gland, used to reduce inflammation.

Delirium: Delirium, or acute confusional state, is a syndrome that presents as severe confusion and disorientation, developing with relatively rapid onset and fluctuating in intensity.

Dementia or Senility The loss of mental ability severe enough to interfere with normal activities of daily living, lasting more than six months, not present since birth, and not associated with a loss or alteration of consciousness. http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents.php?categoryID=200120 

Disulfiram: An antioxidant that inhibits the oxidation of the acetaldehyde metabolized from alcohol, resulting in high concentrations of acetaldehyde in the body. Used for developing an aversion to alcohol. 

Emergence delirium: (pediatrics) a dissociated state of consciousness in which the child is inconsolable, irritable, uncompromising or uncooperative, typically thrashing, crying, moaning, or incoherent

Epidural: An injection into the epidural space of the spine.

Epilepsy: Any of a group of syndromes characterized by paroxysmal transient disturbances of brain function that may be manifested as episodic impairment or loss of consciousness, abnormal motor phenomena, psychic or sensory disturbances.

Field block: the anesthetic agent is injected around the boundaries of the area to be anesthetized, with no attempt to locate specific nerves.

First-episode psychosis (FEP): Misleading term used to define several functional definitions. First episode psychosis commonly refers to the first time someone experiences psychotic symptoms or a psychotic episode. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22642728

General anesthesia: General anesthesia is the induction of a state of unconsciousness with the absence of sensation over the entire body, through the administration of anesthetic drugs. 

Hallucinations: Hallucinations are false or distorted sensory experiences that appear to real perceptions. These sensory impressions are generated by the mind rather than by any external stimuli, and may be seen, heard, felt, and even smelled or tasted.

Internal fixation (IF): The stabilization of fractured bony parts by direct fixation to one another with surgical wires, screws, pins, or plates.

Ischemic heart disease (IHD): Any of a group of acute or chronic cardiac disabilities resulting from insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart.

Mania: An abnormally elated mental state, typically characterized by feelings of euphoria, lack of inhibitions, racing thoughts, and diminished need for sleep, talkativeness, risk taking, and irritability. In extreme cases, mania can induce hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms.

Nerve block: the anesthetic agent is deposited from a syringe and needle as close to the target nerve as possible. Several injections are often made if the landmarks for the location of the nerve are not outstanding.

Postoperative Cognitive dysfunction (POCD):  A decline in cognitive function for weeks or months after surgery. 

Post-Operative Neurobehavioural Disturbance (POND): POND is a broad classification of neurobehavioural disturbances that occur in the immediate postoperative period (<24 hr). It can present as emergence delirium, POCD or as an acute psychosis (hallucinations, paranoia or aggressive behavior with the risk of self harm).

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A debilitating psychological condition triggered by a major traumatic event. It is marked by upsetting memories or thoughts of the ordeal, “blunting” of emotions, increased arousal, and sometimes severe personality changes. 

Regional anesthesia: Anesthesia provided by injecting a local anesthetic to block a group of sensory nerve fibers, usually by means of a spinal or epidural nerve block.

Spinal: Anesthesia produced by injection of the agent beneath the membrane of the spinal cord.

Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder (or a group of disorders) marked by severely impaired thinking, emotions, and behaviors.

Substance-induced psychotic disorder: (commonly known as Toxic psychosis) is a form of substance-related disorder where psychosis can be attributed to substance use.

Vascular Dementia (VaD): Neurology a potentially preventable form of dementia, in which cerebral atrophy is due to various types of CVAs, resulting in variably-sized infarcts. 

© 2017 POND Awareness

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